1. Что такое научный консенсус
Нау́чный консе́нсус — коллективные решения, позиции и мнения сообщества ученых в определённой области науки в конкретный момент времени. Консенсус предполагает общее согласие, но не обязательно единодушие. Научный консенсус не является, сам по себе, научным аргументом, и не является частью научного метода, однако содержание консенсуса само по себе может быть основано на научных аргументах и на научном методе.
The Scientific Consensus represents the position generally agreed upon at a given time by most scientists specialized in a given field.More:
Scientific Consensus does NOT mean that:
- all scientist are unanimous: disagreements may occur and can be necessary for science to progress,
- the position is definitive: the consensus can evolve with the results from further research and contrary opinions.
Therefore, Scientific Consensus is NOT a synonym of «Certain Truth».
But when the scientific expertise to judge a scientific position is lacking, the best choice is to rely on the Consensus.
2. Статьи в журналах
2.1 Статья в Annual Review of Public Health, 2014 г.
О журнале Annual Reviews в Википедии:
«Annual Reviews» — американское издательство книг и журналов, основанное в 1932 году. Расположено в Пало-Альто (Калифорния).
Является некоммерческим академическим издательством, печатающим около 40 серий (журналов, ежегодников), публикующих крупные обзорные статьи о достижениях в области естественных и социальных наук. Более половины из этих журналов имеют высочайший уровень цитирования по Импакт-фактор (Science Citation Index), занимая первые места в своих категориях наук.
Цитата из статьи Can We Say What Diet Is Best for Health? про веганскую диету:
A vegan diet excludes all animal products—notably, dairy, eggs, and meats. As with almost every other dietary approach, vegan eating can be done well or badly. Vegans, in general, tend to be especially mindful eaters and often adhere to the dietary pattern for reasons including, but not limited to, personal health. Ethical considerations related to the treatment of animals are often salient (http://www.vegan.org/). Those committed to long-term veganism are typically well versed in the need to combine plant foods to achieve complete protein and in the role of select nutrient supplements. Those who adopt veganism for a short term, particularly adolescents seeking rapid weight loss, are not as reliably well informed.
In general, vegan diets, when well constructed, are associated with health benefits. Intervention trials of short to moderate duration suggest benefits related to overall diet quality, inflammation, cardiac risk measures, cancer risk, anthropometry, and insulin sensitivity.
Eating only plant foods does not guarantee a healthful, balanced diet. Sugar, among the more concerning dietary components consumed in excess, is of plant origin. Vegan diets, if ill conceived, can combine the adverse exposures of plant-based junk foods with nutrient deficiencies.
Veganism in free-living populations tends to be associated with particular health consciousness. Intervention trials of vegan diets are limited to those willing to be assigned to such a diet for a span of weeks, months, or years. Given such constraints, data from intervention trials that are related to direct comparison of vegan diets with various other dietary patterns, that are defended from bias, and that examine long-term health effects are essentially nonexistent. This does not argue against vegan diets, but it does argue against overstating the basis for them in evidence related to human health outcomes.
2.2 Статья в American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2009 г.
О журнале в Википедии:
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition is a monthly peer-reviewedmedical journal in the field of clinical nutrition. According to the Journal Citation Reports, it has a 2009 impact factor of 6.307, ranking it third among 66 journals in the category «Nutrition & Dietetics».
Цитата из статьи Health effects of vegan diets:
Vegans are thinner, have lower serum cholesterol and blood pressure, and enjoy a lower risk of CVD. BMD and the risk of bone fracture may be a concern when there is an inadequate intake of calcium and vitamin D. Where available, calcium- and vitamin D–fortified foods should be regularly consumed. There is a need for more studies on the relation between vegan diets and risk of cancer, diabetes, and osteoporosis. Vitamin B-12 deficiency is a potential problem for vegans, so that the use of vitamin B-12–fortified foods or supplements are essential. To optimize the n–3 fatty acid status of vegans, foods rich in ALA, DHA-fortified foods, or DHA supplements should be regularly consumed. Vegans generally have an adequate iron intake and do not experience anemia more frequently than others. Typically, vegans can avoid nutritional problems if appropriate food choices are made. Their health status appears to be at least as good as other vegetarians, such as lactoovovegetarians.
3. Позиция диетологических и медицинских организаций
It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that appropriately planned vegetarian diets, including total vegetarian or vegan diets, are healthful, nutritionally adequate, and may provide health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases. Well-planned vegetarian diets are appropriate for individuals during all stages of the life cycle, including pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence, and for athletes.
Vegetarian diets can meet all the recommendations for nutrients. The key is to consume a variety of foods and the right amount of foods to meet your calorie needs. Follow the food group recommendations for your age, sex, and activity level to get the right amount of food and the variety of foods needed for nutrient adequacy. Nutrients that vegetarians may need to focus on include protein, iron, calcium, zinc, and vitamin B12.
A healthy vegan diet can meet all your nutrient needs at any stage of life including when you are pregnant, breastfeeding or for older adults.
A well-balanced vegetarian diet can provide for the needs of children and adolescents. However, appropriate caloric intake should be ensured and growth monitored. Particular attention should be paid to adequate protein intake and sources of essential fatty acids, iron, zinc, calcium, and vitamins B12 and D. Supplementation may be required in cases of strict vegetarian diets with no intake of any animal products. Pregnant and nursing mothers should also be appropriately advised to ensure that the nutritional needs of the fetus and infant are adequately met. Recommendations are provided. Adolescents on restricted vegetarian or other such diets should be screened for eating disorders.
Vegetarian diets can provide all the nutrients you need at any age, as well as some additional health benefits. Vegetarian diets often have lower levels of total fat, saturated fat and cholesterol than many meat-based diets, and higher intakes of fibre, magnesium, potassium, folate and antioxidants such as vitamins C and E. Vegetarian diets may lead to lower blood pressure, improved cholesterol levels, healthier weight and less incidence of Type 2 diabetes, all of which can reduce the risk of heart disease and stroke.
Vegan diets are a type of vegetarian diet, where only plant-based foods are eaten. They differ to other vegetarian diets in that no animal products are usually consumed or used. Despite these restrictions, with good planning it is still possible to obtain all the nutrients required for good health on a vegan diet.
Australian National Health and Medical Research Council / Национальный совет по здоровью и медицинским исследованиям Австралии в Википедии
Australians following a vegetarian diet can still meet nutrient requirements if energy needs are met and the appropriate number and variety of serves from the Five Food Groups are eaten throughout the day. For those eating a vegan diet, supplementation of B12 is recommended.
With good planning and an understanding of what makes up a healthy, balanced vegan diet, you can get all the nutrients your body needs.
A well-planned, balanced vegetarian or vegan diet can be nutritionally adequate, although more extreme diets, such as strict macrobiotic and raw food diets, are often low in energy and a range of micronutrients, making them wholly inadequate and inappropriate for children. Weaning onto a vegetarian diet follows the same principles as weaning onto an omnivorous diet, although care must be taken to ensure that a vegan diet is sufficiently energy and nutrient-dense for children. Studies of UK vegetarian and vegan children have revealed that their growth and development are within the normal range.
… with a little planning a vegetarian diet can meet the needs of people of all ages, including children, teenagers, and pregnant or breast-feeding women. The key is to be aware of your nutritional needs so that you plan a diet that meets them.
Вегетарианская диета, соблюдающаяся разумно, может предоставить все необходимые продукты для нужд ребенка от рождения и до старости.
Дети вегетарианцы прекрасно растут, если их меню включает все необходимые компоненты в достаточном количестве, и если они питаются в соответствии с рекомендациями питания для всех детей их возраста.